Kaempferol is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid.

It's found in tea, broccoli, delphinium, witch-hazel, grapefruit, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, grapes, Brussels sprouts, apples, and other plant sources.

Natural Sources

Source Kaempferol Contents
Apples ?
Beans ?
Broccoli ?
Brussels sprouts ?
Cabbage 0.03% [7]
Cauliflower 0.003% [7]
Chives 0.0055% [7]
Delphinium ?
Endive 0.00492%
Grapefruit ?
Grapes ?
Kale 0.0013% [7]
Kohlrabi Shoot 0.008% [7]
Leek ?
Neem Flower 0.2% [7]
Pea 0.05% [7]
Strawberries                       ?
Tea 6.3-17 mg/L [8]
Tomato ?
Witch-hazel ?

Effects on Enzymes

GST Effect Dosage Verified in Man
GSTM1-1 Inhibitor[6] ? ?
GSTM2-2 Inhibitor[6] ? ?
P450 Effect Dosage Verified in Man
CYP1A2   Potent Inhibitor ? ?
CYP2B6  Inhibitor ? ?
Sulfotransferase Effect Dosage Verified in Man
SULT1A1 Potent inhibition[4][5] ? ?
P-Glycoprotein Effect Dosage Verified in Man
P-gp Inhibitor [3] ? ?
17bHSD Effect Dosage Verified in Man
Type 2 (17bHSD2) Inhibitor[1][2] ? ?

Chemical Properties

PubChem Compound ID: 5280863
Molecular Weight: 286.2363 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula: C15H10O6
XLogP3: 1.9
H-Bond Donor: 4
H-Bond Acceptor: 6
IUPAC Name: 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromen-4-one
InChI: InChI=1S/C15H10O6/c16-8-3-1-7(2-4-8)15-14(20)13(19)12-10(18)5-9(17)6-11(12)21-15/h1-6,16-18,20H
Canonical SMILES: C1=CC(=CC=C1C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O

1. Synthesis, Reactivity and Biological Activity of 17ß-HSD1 Inhibitors Based on a Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one Core
Annamaria Lilienkampf, Helsinki 2007, ISBN 978-952-10-4211-9
2. Inhibition of 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase by flavonoids in breast and prostate cancer cells.
Mäkelä S, Poutanen M, Kostian ML, Lehtimäki N, Strauss L, Santti R, Vihko R. PubMed: 9492340
3. Emerging Significance of Flavonoids as P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors in
Cancer Chemotherapy Tripta Bansal, Manu Jaggi, Roop K Khar and Sushama Talegaonkar; J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www. cspsCanada.org) 12 (1): 46 - 78, 2009 (Download Attached PDF Document)
4. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism.
Moon YJ, Wang X, Morris ME. PubMed PMID: 16289744
Inhibition of rat liver sulfotransferases SULT1A1 and SULT2A1 and glucuronosyltransferase by dietary flavonoids. Mesía-Vela S, Kauffman FC. PubMed PMID: 14742143
6. The inhibition of human glutathione S-transferases activity by plant polyphenolic compounds ellagic acid and curcumin.
Hayeshi R, Mutingwende I, Mavengere W, Masiyanise V, Mukanganyama S. PubMed PMID: 17046132
7. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants
Duke, James A. 1992. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press (Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases Online)
8. Content of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids of Tea Infusions,
Wines, and Fruit Juices Michael G. L. Hertog, Peter C. H. Hollman, and Betty van de Putte. 1993. DOI: 10.1021/jf00032a015
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