Glucosamine is an SSAO inhibitor.[2][1]

The oral bioavailability of glucosamine is approximately 26%.[4] Glucosamine sulphate is shown to be well absorbed orally but it undergoes substantial first-pass metabolism. [4]

Glucosamine has a very short serum half-life but has an overall half life of approximately 15 hours in humans orally and can be detected in plasma collected up to 48 hours later.[3] Other studies shown the non-serum half-life of glucosamine was from 28-58 hours.[4]

Glucosamine was shown to reduce glutathione levels in vitro.[5]

Chemical Properties

PubChem Compound ID: 441477
Molecular Weight: 179.17112 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula: C6H13NO5
XLogP3-AA: -2.8
IUPAC Name: (2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
InChI: InChI=1S/C6H13NO5/c7-3-5(10)4(9)2(1-8)12-6(3)11/h2-6,8-11H,1,7H2/t2-,3-,4-,5-,6-/m1/s1
Canonical SMILES: C(C1C(C(C(C(O1)O)N)O)O)O
Isomeric SMILES: C([CH]1[C@H]([CH]([C@H]([C@@H](O1)O)N)O)O)O

1. O'Sullivan J, Davey G, O'Sullivan M, Tipton KF;
Hydrogen peroxide derived from amine oxidation mediates the interaction between aminosugars and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; J Neural Transm. 2007;114(6):751-6. Epub 2007 Mar 31. PubChem PMID: 17401531
2. O'Sullivan J, O'Sullivan M, Tipton KF, Unzeta M, Del Mar Hernandez M, Davey GP;
The inhibition of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase by aminohexoses; Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.; Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):367-71; PubMed PMID: 12686159
3. Persiani S, Roda E, Rovati LC, Locatelli M, Giacovelli G, Roda A.;
Glucosamine oral bioavailability and plasma pharmacokinetics after increasing doses of crystalline glucosamine sulfate in man; Clinical Pharmacology Department, Rotta Research Laboratorium/Rottapharm, Monza, Italy; Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005 Dec;13(12):1041-9. Epub 2005 Sep 13; PubMed PMID: 16168682
4. SG Kirkham, RK Samarasinghe;
Review article: Glucosamine; Department of Orthopaedics, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery 2009;17(1):72-6; Download Attached PDF Document
5. The role of glucosamine, chondroitin and thymoquinone on the viability and proliferation of a HTB-93 rheumatoid arthritis cell model.
May M, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Mohamed A, Tan M, Norwood A. PubMed PMID 16817631
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